Hepatitis C is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide with a 170 million of a HCV-infected individuals; it is often complicated by the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. If an HCV infection is not treated or is ineffectively treated, hepatocellular function may deteriorate progressively. For patients with end stage chronic liver disease, liver transplantation (LT) is currently the treatment of choice. Recurrent HCV infection is one of the most important graft diseases that can occur after LT.
Most (70–80%) HCV infections persist and about 30% of individuals with persistent infection develop chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Epidemiological, viral and host factors have been associated with the differences in HCV clearance or persistence, and studies have demonstrated that a strong host immune response against HCV favors viral clearance.
Thus, variation in genes involved in the immune response may contribute to the ability to clear the virus. In a recent genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) 3 kilobases upstream of the IL28B gene, which encodes the type III interferon IFN-λ3, was shown to associate strongly with more than a twofold difference in response to HCV drug treatment.
The C/C genotype was associated with a 2.5 or greater rate (depending on ethnicity) of SVR compared with the T/T genotype.
GENVINSET® IL28B is a kit for the determination of the C/T di-allelic system of the rs12979860 microsatellite of IL28B gene by Real Time PCR using TaqMan® probes technology.