Insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Progression to disease involves both genetic and environmental factors (1, 2).
It is the most common form of diabetes among children and young adults in populations of Caucasoid origin, where the prevalence is approximately 0.4%. (3).
In the 1970s, association and affected-sib pair linkage studies established the role of HLA genes in IDDM predisposition (4-6). Initial association studies of serologically determined HLA alleles with IDDM showed increased frequencies of B8-DR3 and B15 (w62)-DR4 in Caucasians (10, 11). Both DR3 and DR4 are very strongly associated with IDDM: over 93% of IDDM patients have at least one of these alleles, compared to 43% of controls (12), with a significant increase in risk for DR3/DR4 heterozygotes (13-15).
It is clear that some combinations of HLA-DQ genes are associated with susceptibility to IDDM. Approximately 30% of IDDM patients are HLA-DQ2/DQ8 heterozygotes (19). From both human genetics and animal model studies there is good evidence that particular alleles of the HLA-DQB1 (*03:02 and *02:01) and DRB1 (*03 and *04) loci all are primarily involved in the genetic predisposition to IDDM (20-25).
GENVINSET® HLA DIABETES MELLITUS Type 1 is a kit for HLA-DRB1*03, DRB1*04, DQB1*02:01 and DQB1*03:02 alleles determination by Real Time PCR using TaqMan® probes technology.